Campari is a very bitter apertif from Italy. It is flavored with various herbs, but the actual ingredients are a closely guarded secret. It was invented in 1860 by Gaspare Campari. The vibrant red color used to come from a red colorant known as "Cochineal Crimson E120" (also known as "carmine") which is derived from the dried bodies of female cochineal insects typically found on prickly pear cactuses in Mexico. However, in 2006 they perfected a new method of coloration and no longer use carmine for their distinctive red coloration.